First, or any new or difficult concept, I find that REPETITION is a useful tool for improving understanding. I do not mean that 50 problems is required, but certainly going over 5 or 10 examples that are slightly different and require some new thinking each time is a helpful way to “embed” deeper understanding. For example, instead of asking 1 question that requires 1 process, I might ask students to complete the missing values in a a table.
Second, I also use GROUP discussions to promote explanations and inquiry in a more “student-owned” environment. Instead of 1 teacher responding to 1 whole class, I often divide the class into 6 groups so the students can work on guided problems together and use each other as resources in a more comfortable space.
Third, GAMIFICATION has become easier to use as a motivation tool for students. It can be used in so many ways to promote engagement and attention. So, whatever task you want students to spend more time on. create a way to make a game that students can compete or participate individually.